Bone Marrow Aspitation & Biopsy and Lumbar Puncture
(a) Bone Marrow Aspitation & Biapsy:
Bone marrow has both a solid and a liquid part. A bone marrow aspitation removes a sample of the fluid with a needle. A bone marrow biopsy is the removal of a small amount of solid tissue using a needle.
A pathologist then analyzes the sample. A common site for a bone marrow aspitation and biopsy is the pelvic bone, which is located in the lower back by the hip. Doctors generally give a type of medication called "anesthesia" beforehand to numb the area. Anesthesia is medication that blocks the awareness of pain. Stronger types of anesthesia can also be used to lessen the pain.
A bone marrow aspitation is recommended if the blood test shows unusual blood counts or immature cells, or if the doctor suspects that a child may have leukemia. From this test, the doctor can find out whether the child has leukemia and, if so, what type of leukemia it is. The doctor or other health care team member will collect more than one sample of bone marrow at the same time for other tests, such as chromosome and molecular genetic tests and immunophenotyping . These additional tests are important to plan the most appropriate treatments.
For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the main way doctors diagnose it. During a biopsy, a doctor removes a small amount of tissue to examine under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a diagnosis.
(c) lumbar puncture :
A lumbar puncture can determine if the leukemia has spread to the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the fluid that flows around the brain and the spinal cord. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is used to take a sample of the CSF to look for leukemia cells. Doctors may give an anesthetic to numb the lower back before the procedure and/or use anesthesia to block awareness of the pain. Knowing whether or not there is leukemia in the central nervous system helps doctors choose the most appropriate